In addition, we have made editorial amendments to §§ 171.11, 171.12, and 171.12a to address changes in regulatory citations. In August and October of 2006 and March of 2007, several leading computer manufacturers recalled nearly 10 million notebook computer secondary lithium batteries based on manufacturing defects. The batteries in the 2006 recalls, manufactured by Sony Energy Devices Corporation, were voluntarily recalled in coordination with the U.S. According to CPSC reports, these defective secondary lithium batteries can spontaneously overheat and cause fires. The batteries in the March 2007 voluntary recall were manufactured by Sanyo Electric Company, Ltd. and designed to be extended-life batteries for Lenovo ThinkPad notebook computers. According to CPSC, the Sanyo lithium-ion batteries pose a fire hazard if the battery is struck forcefully on the corner (e.g., a direct fall to the ground).
When the heat release from the batteries was no longer detectable, the power of the propane burner was doubled, i.e. to 32 kW, in order to be sure to fully burn out any residues of the batteries, for increased personnel safety. The fire emissions were collected in the hood and transferred in the smoke duct having a ventilation flow of 0.4 m3/s, with the exception that 0.6 m3/s was used in two tests with 100% SOC for type C. For these cases the values were scaled down to the lower flow values making the results from the two flow rates comparable.
Require that small lithium batteries be shipped as Class 9 hazmat but not require testing unless they are being shipped internationally by air. (3) It is unlikely that the pressure rise caused by burning primary lithium batteries would lead to an overpressure of an air craft cargo compartment. (3) Extend the exception in the UN Recommendations for small production runs of cells or batteries from 100 to 1,000 batteries. When the FTIR measurement stopped, HF levels were, in some of the tests, still somewhat above the detection limit, even though no HRR contribution was measured from the batteries. It is also possible that the HF was temporarily clogged in the sampling system.
In addition, 15–22 mg/Wh of another potentially toxic gas, phosphoryl fluoride (POF3), was measured in some of the fire tests. Gas emissions when using water mist as extinguishing agent were also investigated. Fluoride gas emission can pose a serious toxic threat and the results are crucial findings for risk assessment and management, especially for large Li-ion battery packs. A104 The net weight of secondary lithium batteries or cells contained in equipment may not exceed 5 kg (11 pounds) in packages that are authorized aboard passenger carrying aircraft. PRBA, FEDCO, SION, Valence Technology, ACR, SkyBitz Inc., EIA, and Intel Corporation request several exceptions to the testing requirements for small lithium batteries. They ask us to include an exception for single cell lithium batteries, an exception for small production runs, and a delay in the effective date of the rule.
The packages on the pallets were damaged during handling at LAX, and this damage is believed to have initiated the subsequent fire. Northwest ground employees initially fought the fire with portable fire extinguishers and a fire hose. In some measurements reported, HF has been found, within limited SOC-variations, during the abuse of Li-ion battery cells15,16,26, as well as detected during the abuse of battery packs27. Time-resolved quantitative HF measurements on the gas release from complete electric vehicles including their Li-ion battery packs during an external fire have also been performed32.
Businesses likely to be affected by the final rule in Docket HM–224E are primary lithium battery manufacturers and distributors. For purposes of the small business impact analysis, the definition of “small business” has the same meaning as under the Small Business Act. Recognizing that the risk and benefit profile is and has been dynamic, the final rule adopted today is best understood against the backdrop of existing and ongoing regulatory actions, including the separate rulemaking proposals that gave rise to this consolidated proceeding. By way of background, we begin with a discussion of regulatory requirements in place at the time of the LAX incident and NTSB recommendations.
FedEx states that currently, the proper shipping names for “Lithium batteries contained in equipment, UN 3091” or “Lithium batteries packed with equipment, UN 3091” do not indicate whether the lithium battery is large or small. FedEx expresses concern that a carrier has no reasonable way of knowing if the lithium battery is large or small. FedEx is also concerned with the proliferation of markings or other minimal requirements when dangerous goods shipments are otherwise not regulated and are excepted from the regulation. FedEx states marking a package “PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERIES—FORBIDDEN FOR TRANSPORT ABOARD PASSENGER AIRCRAFT” will only cause confusion, delay shipments and impede commerce. FedEx recommends the use of Cargo Aircraft Only labels for the shipment of lithium batteries subject to the final rule. Two commenters address the April 28, 1999 LAX incident mentioned in the IFR.
PRBA, FEDCO, SION, Valence Technology, ACR, SkyBitz Inc, EIA, and Intel Corporation all suggest an exception, consistent with the international regulations, from marking, packaging, and shipping paper requirements for equipment containing small lithium batteries and cells. In order to further improve the accuracy of the FTIR measurements, a data offset determination and a subsequent one-click purchase of Somatropin adjustment of the HF values was performed. The improvement was greatest for tests with lower concentrations, closer to the MDL value, e.g. type A with 5 cells with low values during relatively short periods of time. With 10 cells per test, the type A batteries gave higher signal-to-noise levels. The FTIR measurements started around 8 minutes before the burner was started.
In addition, FEDCO states the testing of its existing 450 primary lithium and secondary lithium battery designs will cost an additional $9 million. FEDCO proposes an exception from the proposed tests for batteries and battery packs consisting of cells that have passed the UN tests; the exception would permit the batteries and battery packs to be transported without further testing. NEMA recommends PHMSA either eliminate this restriction on products shipped with or contained with primary lithium batteries and cells or clarify the weight restrictions for primary lithium batteries and cells. NEMA also states PHMSA should expand the provision relating to products to cover lithium batteries shipped with accessories or other non-hazardous materials.
These commenters suggest the incident occurred under atypical handling procedures and was the direct result of inadequate packaging. SAFT America states improved packaging requirements, mandatory testing of all primary lithium batteries and cells in accordance with the UN Recommendations, and procedures to quarantine damaged shipments would successfully address the root cause of the incident. This commenter further states all other incidents involving primary lithium batteries and cells involved improper packaging or batteries contained in checked or carry-on baggage; the commenter notes that neither of these situations is addressed in the IFR. FedEx suggests packaging for all battery types must be reviewed and better packaging requirements must be developed to prevent fires and recommends further studies to identify an effective extinguishing agent for lithium batteries. FEDCO and ACR indicate the number of small businesses identified by the IRFA (60 small businesses) should be much higher. In the FRFA we identify 2,239 small businesses potentially affected by this rule.
Thus energy ratios published using other methods and other types of Li-ion cells can be significantly different7,52,53. The heat release rate (HRR) and the emitted HF for B-type cells with different SOC values are shown in Fig. Only the 100% SOC cells show several distinct peaks, corresponding to intense flares, when the cells vented and the emitted gas burn, for all other cells the heat release as a function of time is more smooth.